Since Mr Trump`s announcement, US envoys have continued to participate – as planned – in UN climate negotiations in order to shore up the details of the deal. Meanwhile, thousands of leaders across the country have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the overwhelming majority of Americans who support the Paris Agreement. Among city and state officials, business leaders, universities, and individuals, there has been a wave of participation in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the U.S. Climate Alliance, We Are Still In, and the American Cities Climate Challenge. Complementary and sometimes intersecting movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at local, regional and national levels. Each of these efforts focuses on achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to steer the country in the opposite direction. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to contribute to and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement incorporates greater flexibility: there is no language about the commitments countries should make, nations can voluntarily set their emissions targets (NNCs), and countries will not be punished if they fail to meet their proposed targets. But what the Paris Agreement requires is to monitor, report and reassess countries` individual and collective goals over time, in order to bring the world closer to the broader goals of the agreement. And the agreement includes an obligation for countries to announce their next round of targets every five years, unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which aimed at this target but did not contain a specific requirement to achieve it. While strengthening the ambitions of NDCs is a major objective of the global inventory, it assesses efforts that go beyond control.
The five-year reviews will also assess adaptation, climate finance rules, and technology development and transfer.  These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those of other international instruments. While the system does not carry financial penalties, the requirements are aimed at easily tracking the progress of individual nations and promoting a sense of global group pressure, which discourages any hesitation between countries that might consider it. To contribute to the objectives of the agreement, countries presented broad national climate change plans (national contributions, NDCs). These are not yet sufficient to meet the temperature targets, but the agreement sets out the way forward. At present, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory being war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. Of these, 179 have consolidated their climate proposals with formal approval, including the United States for now. The only major emitting countries that have not yet formally joined the deal are Russia, Turkey and Iran. The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has been extended until 2012. This year, at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, delegates agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (without some industrialized countries that had withdrawn from the country. . .